2. Chemical conservation training center chemical lab government of
3. Museum Documentation Training Government Museum; Ghandhinagar,
4. Completed Nepal/Japan student club training for one week 1999.
5. Received intensive Japanese language training in Osaka Japan for three weeks in 1999
6. Received Museum Management Training conducted by JICA from 4th August,
7. Participant all Indian Museum Conference 1993.
8. Participated in 6th INTL Seminar on Museology conducted
9. Received Heritage Conservation course conducted by ACCU/UNESCO
10. Paper presented in National museum in New Delhi; India on the
11. Attended a workshop in Jodhpur; India organized by Meharangarh Fort Museum and the British council from 28th January to 1st February 2002.
12. Received advance course in Japanese paper conservation conducted by ICCROM and Japan 1st October to 18th October 2002
13. Received 45 days of training conducted by Staff College in project planning in 2002.
14. Teaching practice (eight weeks) Kathmandu Gan Bahal high school 1984.
15. Participated International Level archaeological conference held Seoul.2006.
16. Participant International Council of Museum 4th General conference Seoul S. Korea 2-8, Oct.2004.
17. Climbed Amadulam Himalaya base camp as a liaison officer
18. Selected under the Korea Foundation for field research fellow 2006 for three months 4 Jan to 4 Apr.2006.
19. Taught Hanyang University 4, Jan to 4 April 2006 as assistant professor.
20. Participated International Level archaeological conference held Seoul.2006.
21. Participated INTERCOM conference 2-4 November Taiwan
22. Participated Metal and Wooden artifact conservation conference held at Netherlands. From 10-25, 2007 Sep and 17-23 Metal Conservation.
· Teacher in primary schools 1977-1979
· Head master junior high school, 1979-1980.
· Lecture in Tribhuvan .University. Bhojpur Multiple campus,
· Served as an excavation officer Department of Archaeology Kathmandu Nepal.
· Jointly work with Italian archaeological (ISMEO) team in Kathmandu.
· Worked as a project chief in renovation world heritage site at Shoyambhu Nath.
· Worked as a project chief in the renovation of the national heritage site at Nuwakot palace site.
· Completed designs and display including over all work Lumbini museum as a Museum expert.
· Worked as a team leader for the collection, conservation and the documentation of the ethnographical artifacts in regional museum at Surkhet in western Nepal.
· Worked as a team leader to collect, to conserve and the documentation of Ethnographical artifacts in the regional museum of Pokhara.
· Served as an electoral officer for general election in 1991 in western Nepal.
· Served as an electoral officer for general election in 1999 in eastern Nepal.
· Curator at the National Art Gallery Bhaktapur.1988-1990.
· Curator at the National Museum of Nepal-1998.
· Museum Director Kapilwastu Museum 1990-1995.
· Part time lecturer of History in a local college during the tenure at Kapilvastu Museum in southwestern Nepal.
· Served as the Secretary of Nepal Museum Association.
· Involved in disaster rescue management team in big earthquake of 1988 to save the earthquake victims in eastern Nepal
· Selected as a UNV volunteer as a heritage expert.
· Worked as a museum expert in Tharu Culture Museum Shouraha Chit wan National Park under the scheme of King Mahendra trust-2004
· Worked as a museum expert in Eco-museum Jomsom Mustang under the Scheme of King Mahendra trust-2006
· INTERCOM presented by Taiwan 2-4 November 2006.
· Research Fellow under the scheme of Korea Foundation 4, Jan to 4th April 2006 Seoul
Archaeological finding from Udayapur, Published in ancient Nepal by Department of Archaeology article number-90, Oct-Nov 1985.
Museum develop in Nepal and Nepal, Published in The News monthlymagazine number-7, July 2005
Museum and community service, Nepal, year 28, number 1, 2054,.P.41
A Policy is required for Conservation & Preservation of Nepalese Heritage Properties Our Heritage (HAMRO SHAMPADA) Year 4, Number 7, 2061 Jan and Feb. p.27
The National Museum of Nepal & Paper Conservation. Everest Mirror's vol.6, No.2, 2002, P.33
Education versus Research Souvenir, 2005, Published by Nepal National Ethnographic Museum, P. 56
Museum Conservation ;Report, Published by Culture heritage Protection Cooperation Office Asia/Pacific Culture for UNESCO ( ACCU Nara Japan) 2000-Report PP.2
Japanese traditional Paper conservation; Report, Published by National Research Institute for Culture Properties, Tokyo,2002 P 97
Indian Influenced on Nepalese; Cultural Interface of India with Asia, Edited by Anupa Pande and Parul Pandey Dhar, Published 2004, by National Museum Institute New Delhi Art-143
Neither government nor Museum itself serious towards own promotion. The Himalaya Times 2060, Magh 14 PP-3
Himalayan Times daily Wednesday,Magh 14,2060 P-3
Discovery of Lichhavi Inscription in Udayapur district eastern, Nepal, The Gorkha Patra Saturday Jestha 5, 2042
New role of museums resource management; New Roles and Missions of Museums INTERCOM 2006 Annual Meeting & Conference Published by Chinese Association of Museum, Taiwan PP 221.
An Introduction to Mustang Nepal and its Eco-Museum, American Council for Sothern Asian Art ACSAA Spring/Summer 2007.No.67 PP 11-13.
Das Nationale Erbe Nepals, Die Stellwand Heft 1-Jg.15-2007 Austria P.P. 17
Introducing the National Museum of Nepal, ICR News Letter of the International Committee for Regional Museums .PDF 2006<2> PP 9-15
Museum and Universal Heritage, Hamro Pahal, year 6 number 7, Jestha 5 Saturday 2007.
Museum should be separate from Department of Archaeology; Hamro Pahal year 6 No.7 May 2007 PP.8 Hobbies: To conserve and preserve of tangible and intangible cultural propertiesthrough Museum
Heritage Tourism A brief study in the context of national of Museum Nepal
The History of Museum’s in Nepal :-
Nepal, a small country between two big countries of Asia: India and China, has a long history. This country, rectangular in shape, has India to its south, west and east and the autonomous region of Tibet of China to the north. The northern side of Nepal has man peaks of above 4000 meters, including the highest peak of the world, Mt. Everest (Sagarmatha). From north to south, it descends gradually and as such is regarded as a paradise for the ecologist specializing in its various branches. Due to the lack of proper scientific exploration and excavation, we are not in a position to say anything denite about the very early history of Nepal and its people. The .endings of pre-historic tools both from Paleolithic and Neolithic ages prove that the people inhabited Nepal from very pre-historic times. Kathmandu valley, the capital of Nepal according to mythological records and legends, was once a lake surrounded by hills all around. The oral history credits Manjushree or Krishna, who visited the lake, slashed the rock hill at Chobhar and Kautdwar and drained the lake. Scientific study has now proved that it indeed was a lake and some eruption like an earthquake split the rock hill of Chobhar and in course of time, the lake turned into this valley; presently known as Kathmandu. The capital of Nepal has had a history culture, tradition of its own for the last three millennium.
The National Museum of Nepal
The National Museum of Nepal was established in 1928 A.D. as an Arsenal museum in the historical building, which was built in 1806 A.D. during the period of the premiership of General Bhimsen Thapa. The initial name of this museum was “Chhauni Silkhana which literally means ’the store house of arms and ammunitions ‘. It was opened as a public museum in the year 1938 A.D. by the then Prime Minister Juddha Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana. He not only allowed the Nepalese to visit the museum charging very little but also raised a building for an art museum and named it after him Juddha Jatiya Kalashala. Until then only foreign scholars/dignitaries and invitees or guests of the Rana Prime Minister occasionally visited this wonderful collection. It was only in the year 1967 A.D. this was named as Rastriya Sangrahalaya, the National Museum of Nepal during the rule of His Majesty the King Mahendra. The National Museum is under the ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation and supervised by the Department of Archaeology. Being the oldest, largest and the only one multipurpose Museum of the country, it has an important and leading role to play for the development of museums in Nepal. Obviously, it plays the initial role in giving informal education to the people. There are three buildings within the museum premises for the exhibitions:
1. The Main Historical Building
2. Juddha Jatiya Kalashala
3. Buddhist Art Gallery.
The Nepalese cultural tradition is endowed with many valuable objects. The panoramic view of the Himalayas, the green mountains, the dense the forests, the valley and plains under the blue sky, the watershed areas of Gandaki, Koshi , Karnali and their tributaries, the flora and fauna that grew in the holy land have sensitized our artists from the time immemorial. Under such enchanting atmosphere the civilization and culture dawned in the Kathmandu valley from the very ancient time. Creativity of the artists is revealed in their pieces. Their emotion, imagination and wisdom and finally their vision is reflected in their art. The Nepalese art, architecture, sculpture and paintings are the best evidences of it. The artists demonstrate their skills on various objects such as metal, stone, wood, terracotta, ivory etc. The architectural design of the cities of the Kathmandu valley is generally based on religious philosophy concept and in medieval time it was developed as “Nepal Mandala”.The design of Bhaktpur city is made in the shape of Sankha (Conchs) The three cities of the valley Bhaktapur, Lalitpur and Kantipur also well planned. The whole valley perfectly had been developed as Mandalas protected by deities like four Narayanas, Changu Narayana, Ichangu Narayana, Bisankhu Narayana and Shesh Narayana in four cardinal directions and the protectors like Vajrayogini of Sankhu and Khadga Jogini of Pharping. The cities were planned in Vihara and Bahal architectural design embellished with water conduits, stone spouts, Jaladani (water tanks) artistic gateways etc. The Hindu temples and Buddhists stupas adorned the cities. Three palaces were constructed embellished with intricately carved doors and windows with beautiful courtyards adorned with exquisite icons. Not only the palaces but also the public houses were erected to enhance the beauty of the three cities. In each nook and corner of the city so many master pieces of art expressed in artistic excellence. Such art pieces are found made out of stone, metal, terracotta, ivory and other objects. Not only the cities but also the whole of Kathmandu Valley looked like an open museum. Hence I would like to “Study of iconography of Kathmandu Valley and their Preservation Protection including monuments some extent”.
What is museum ?
The museums have come along way from the definition of treasure houses. The role of museum in the society is constantly changing. The functions of the museum are constantly analyzed, revised and substantiated by ever growing need of the advancement of the society. The primary role of the museum is to show its collection to the public. As soon as we pronounce the word museum we mentally visualize a place of collected art and artifacts of the ancient times or natural history. The desire to exhibit is generally connected to the desire to collect, if only to show one’s treasures to a select group of friends. Museum has classified the collections of classical, medieval and Renaissance times as economic hoards, social prestige collections, accumulation of magical charms, expressions of group loyalty, and objects of stimulating curiosity and inquiry. In ancient times temples, churches and monasteries were delegating the functions of museums. The collections of the riches therein can be compared as the objects of the modern museum. People out of the religious reverence used to donate valuable gifts to these places of worship. Visitors to medieval churches in Europe are still privileged to see the elaborate displays as an integral part of the church architecture such or the temples of India and Nepal are also a treasure trove of the incomparable wealth of artifacts. Besides the religious institutions royal households and wealthy traders had the privilege of collecting art and artifacts, paintings, precious jewelleries and other exotic objects. The common man rarely had the opportunity of witnessing such a spectacle. Mythology of the arts), and hence a building set apart for study, especially the institute for philosophy and research at the Libraryesta blished at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter c280 B.C.Museums collect and care for objects of scientific, artistic, or historical importance and make them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. Large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in small cities. Most museums offer programs and activities for a range of audiences, including adults, children, and families, as well as those for more specific professions. Programs for the public may consist of lectures or tutorials by the museum faculty or field experts, films, musical or dance performances, and technology demonstrations. Many times, museums concentrate on the host region's culture. Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. Modern trends in Museology have broadened the range of subject matter and introduced many interactive exhibits, which give the public the opportunity to make choices and engage in activities that may vary the experience from person to person. With the advent of the internet, there are growing numbers of virtual exhibits, i.e. web versions of exhibits showing images and playing recorded sound. Museums are usually open to the general public, sometimes charging an admission fee. Some museums have free entrance, either permanently or on special days, e.g. once per week or year. Museums are usually not run for the purpose of making a profit, unlike galleries which engage in the sale of objects. There are governmental museums, non-governmental or non-profit museums, and privately owned or family museums. It is said that there are more museums per person in Finland than in any other country in the world.How can promote tourism through museum?
Museum, as a non-profit institution in the service of society and of itsdevelopment includes among others. To encourage the active participation of the communities and serve as educator and cultural mediator to an increasing number of visitors belonging to all levels of the community, locality or social group; To play a predominant role in the efforts to stop the degradation of cultural and natural resources, according to principles, standards and objectives of national and international measures for the protection and appreciation of cultural heritage; To ensure that the financial resources derived from policies or economic relationships do not compromise the principles, standards and objectives of the museum. In addition, the museum should ensure that its professionals: Provide proper protection for heritage property in general and preserve and carry out research on its own collection in particular; Respect the principle by which museums represent a public responsibility whose value for the community is in direct proportion to the quality of its objectives; Promote awareness and management of cultural heritage, not only with their colleagues, but also with members of the community concerned, with due tact and respect for the feelings of human dignity held by all peoples. Cultural tourism ethics require all stakeholders to ensure that the visitor combines creative knowledge with the enjoyment of his free time. He should be encouraged to share a social context which, although unfamiliar, invites him to participate in the life and local wisdom of the host community. In order to accomplish this, training for all staff is important; from those participating in museum activities, to cultural staff and tourism professionals, and especially those concerned with the preservation of cultural heritage, its principles, standards, objectives and requirements. Cultural tourism is linked to heritage through a collection of contributions of a culture, people or community, displaying the material evidence of its own identity through its cultural expressions. This link is unique and exceptional and constitutes a non renewable resource. Cultural heritage cannot become a consumer product nor can its relationship with the visitor be superficial. If the tourist is able to identify with the heritage, he can appreciate its value and the importance of preserving it and thus become an ally of museums. Museums are categorized according to the nature of their collections, and the more attractive they are to different audiences, the larger the number of visitors they will be able to attract. Eager to learn about something completely new and original, tourists prefer to go to those museums that are representative of the history, culture and traditions of the host country. Museums constitute an important resource for Cultural Tourism for several reasons: their status as cultural mediators and the diversity of their collections, their category (whether public or private and national, regional or local), and their conditions of multiplicity, uniqueness, freedom, flexibility and creative potentiality.Legislation for the promotion of a tourism which includes investments and interventions in areas of heritage value should ensure that preservation of cultural and natural heritage shall take precedence over economic interests, where there is a risk of irreversible damage. Co-operation between Museological institutions, tourism sector institutions and the communities should be encouraged and arranged. · Legislative consistency necessary for defending heritage and tourist development should be addressed, taking into consideration the coexistence of the different levels of governmental authority as well as the various social sectors concerned. The participation of representatives from the local communities should be especially encouraged. · Museums shall favor self-management as a way to redistribute socio-economic benefits of cultural tourism to the community, since tourism development represents a proven option for generating resources. If they are properly administrated, these resources can directly benefit heritage institutions, especially museums and the communities where they are located. The interaction between tourism and museums is a relationship that can affect the preservation of natural and cultural heritage including that of the collections and the values they transmit. Such a relationship should maintain an ethics of preservation in order to ensure the permanence of the objects. Cultural heritage property is unique and irreplaceable. Its authenticity has an appraised value and its loss or deterioration represents a loss for universal culture. Responsible and sustainable tourism reduces the impact and the deterioration of cultural property to a minimum. · The characteristics of cultural heritage require museum professionals, tour operators and visitors to be a morally and ethically responsible. For this reason programmes targeting preventive preservation should take priority. Evaluating the impact of visitors and regulating tourism use of the museum should take priority when planning for heritage tourism. Such studies should take into account the/an appropriate conceptual and programmatic foundation agreed upon by the sectors involved. With such a foundation, the challenge of using a heritage resource for tourism purposes could be met. In regards to cultural tourism, museums should encourage the active participation of the local communities in the planning of both heritage management and the operations of tourist venues. The links between heritage property and the communities where they originated and where they acquired a historic meaning cannot be broken. Museums are called on to promote the identification, appreciation and preservation of such objects, as well as the environment in which they belong. The participation of members of the communities and social sectors involved in these areas is fundamental in this endeavor, and in so doing they exercise and defend both their individual and collective rights. The community should take part in the design, planning, execution and monitoring phases of activities likely to use cultural heritage for tourism purposes. In order to accomplish this, both cultural identification and improvement in the quality of life of social groups involved in the cultural event are necessary. · The socio-cultural symbiosis between tourism activity and heritage resources, with the free and democratic participation of many sectors, should ensure the quality of the tourism services, the authenticity of the products offered to the visitor as well as the foundations for the cultural event. · Museums should encourage the communities to manage their cultural heritage, for which they should encourage suitable training. Harmonious relationship between museums and cultural tourism should address all constituent aspects of the museum such as the infrastructure, quality of the collection, information and communication systems, educational and exhibition activities, the staff and the relationship with its surroundings. · Museums should be designed for everyone and not exclusively for tourists, although this sector represents an important part of its public. In their social function, museums should create enjoyable experiences emphasizing education and communication. To this end the information presented should be easily understood, with language barriers reduced to a minimum, facilitating communication and with professional staff for trained both Museological duties and visitor assistance. Additionally, museums should provide a collection that is appropriately selected and preserved, using the latest technology available. · Tourism should be a creative use of free time, providing experiences in a time and space away from daily routines. Museums shall create the necessary conditions for their visitors to circulate at their own pace and enjoy their stay. It is important to plan tours using temporary programmes which are restricted to a schedule that satisfies both the leisure periods of the local inhabitants and alternatives for foreign tourists. ·Museums and cultural tourism should encourage the interaction between visitors and the host community in a framework of respect towards the values and the hospitality that are offered. From an economic point of view, commercialization of cultural tourism based on heritage resources should include profitability in its economic, social and environmental dimensions. Planning of cultural projects, from the perspective of the museum and cultural tourism, should reflect marketing strategies consistent with the characteristics of the cultural resources and the host communities. The preservation of the legacy deposited in museums is a responsibility that transcends all administrative authorities to become a responsibility of the country. This does not exempt museums from developing their own mechanisms to seek alternate sponsors and financing; neither does it preclude them from attempting to become profitable institutions capable of generating resources without making concessions, offering a genuine product whose essential strength lies in being exceptional and a repository of identity. Participation of museums in guided tours entails designing and complementing the cultural offering, in addition to being integral elements of the network of tourist attractions at each location. Museums can also be meeting points and points of departure for other itineraries and services, such as places of interest to tourists, restaurants, transportation, handicrafts, etc.
Why museum ?
Culture is the back bone and identity of man kind whether it is tangible or intangible al though the geographical boundaries are set by politically yet we share the same earth. Each community has created its unique tangible and intangible heritage. Asia is the cradle of civilizations starting with the Mesopotamian the oldest civilization in the world followed by the Indus Valley civilization in India, civilization of Hohangho River in China and the Buddhist and Hindu sites in Nepal, Cambodia, Indonesia and Far East. The
diversity in language, culture, religion, music and musical instruments, folk lore, arts, material way of life manifests in human heritage of immense value. Every community world over is loosing these intangible culture properties gradually because of the influences of westernization, industrialization, urbanization, globalization, tourism, cultural penetration, language influences. In the quest of globalization and other radical changes in the life style and necessity of human kind- language, dresses, ornaments, musical instruments festivals are also slowly vanishing. Awareness towards the role of museum is slowly catching up the momentum in Nepal as a preservation & conservation of intangible heritage. Now there are few museums being established with special focus on the intangible heritage because Nepal is a country of diverse ethnicity, culture & heritage. In this context, we have to raise the standard of some Nepalese Museum to preserve the method of conservation and preservation of Nepalese intangible heritage as well as it has to change the educational centre instead of visual store room to their visitors. Hence there are unlimited possibilities in this area in order to upgrade the present condition of the museums as a research laboratory of intangible heritage culture properties.
Music and dance is the expression of human varied emotions throughout the world. In particular, music is the heart of any culture. Whether it is a wedding celebration or funeral procession, music plays a vital role in any culture world over. Religiously too music is an instrument of paying respect and praise to different deities. In Nepal also we have varied forms of music and musical instruments of different races and castes. It is highly recommended concept to have a museum for folk music and folk songs. Since the advent of western music and dance we are slowly ignoring our own form of music and dance. As soon as we pronounce folk music we are talking about a distinctive music of simple village people far away from the influences of modern sound and systems. Our dance forms are also simple and without exposure of physical assets of women. But these days' electronic musical gadgets play an important part in any occasion and the carnal exposure of women is in vogue. It is perpetually destroying our cultural heritage to a great extent. The very concept to have a museum is to preserve and conserve, to collect and to promote one's culture and heritage. Each type of music has an occasion to play. Music can be divided into two major categories: Folk and Classical.
As in any culture classical music is mostly religious. Folk music and songs can be played anywhere whether during the time of planting rice paddy or looking after the cattle. Display of these instruments can be regional, race and caste wise or geographical from north to south or east to west. The displays can be made of instrument wise also like the drums in one area, strings and trumpets in another area. Displays should have captions describing their occasion of playing and the caste that plays and the area where it belongs. With the music the description of dresses and the dances is also necessary. When we are talking about dance there are many forms like Marooni, Ghatu, Devi dance which can be categorized as the classical. Unfortunately these have not been researched. We have dances that are performed by different races and castes on different occasions. Two major religious groups Hindu and Buddhist also have religious music and dance. Music and dance are interrelated and the aim of this museum should be the preservation of this musical heritage of Nepal along with the dance form for which a research center should be established with the help of the experts. The documentation and dissemination of this cultural heritage is necessary for a museum of that caliber. The museum should organize festivities for different seasons and show the public the functional use of such musical instruments. It should be an active organization where people of any age and background could participate and get enjoyment out of knowledge and information. Today museums are not only a treasure house of collections but also a center for recreation and information. This proposed museum should be the center for folk art and crafts. All the races and castes should be represented with their native musical background mostly through diorama. Thematic exhibitions can really express the history of the music. It should organize periodical mobile exhibitions in different regions of the country. There are lots of areas, which can be developed with a bit of imagination and vision. A museum of folk music should blend with our ethnic heritage. It should be related to our way of life and should give the impression of being the representative of the concept on which this museum is going to be established. The displays typically must show the very concept of our musical heritage. The halls and the galleries must be constructed keeping in view with museum fatigue. Museum lighting is another special subject that goes with the architecture. It can give the right atmosphere and the effect in a museum if properly applied. Besides this preservation and conservation should be kept in mind, as the objects will slowly bio-deteriorate. Above all a master plan should be drawn that can assimilate the museum concept on the line of museum principles and ethics. A seminar hall with the facilities for cultural programs is necessary in designing the museum building. Other suggestions can be made when the blue print is prepared if such museum materializes